THE BATTLE OF AIKEN–FEBRUARY 11, 1865

photo31012-235x300One of my favorite ancestors is Simon Poland, who served in the Civil War. Simon served as a corporal in the 10th Ohio Cavalry. Simon was my great great grandfather. He was the father of Cora Poland, who married Tommy Lucas. Tommy Lucas was the father of Marion Idella Lucas, who married Ora Otis Snyder, Sr.

As you may recall from my previous posts, Simon was captured at the Battle of Aiken in Aiken, South Carolina on February 11, 1865 and was held as a prisoner at the infamous Andersonville prison camp for the balance of the war. Fortunately for Simon, given the inhuman conditions at Andersonville, the Civil War only lasted for a few more months.

In the way of some background, the 10th Ohio Cavalry was attached to the army of General William Tecumseh Sherman on Sherman’s famous “March to the Sea” after Sherman captured Atlanta. During Sherman’s March to the Sea, his army “lived off the land” and destroyed many military targets as well as industry, infrastructure and civilian property.  Sherman’s  March to the Sea ended on December 21, 1864 with the capture of the port city of Savannah, Georgia. Before embarking on his March to the Sea, General Sherman had informed General U.S. Grant that one of his stated goals was to “Make Georgia Howl” and he did just that, inflicting devastating damage on Georgia and the Confederacy.

Following the March to the Sea, Sherman’s Army continued north through Georgia and into the Carolinas. Prior to invading the Carolinas, General Sherman stated: “When I go through South Carolina, it will be one of the most horrible things in the history of the world. The devil himself couldn’t restrain my men in that state.”  His statement was an obvious reference to the fact that it was South Carolina that began the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter and seceding from the Union.

By February 1, 1865, the invasion of the Carolinas had begun. Simon’s regiment, the 10th Ohio Cavalry, remained attached to Sherman’s army. Sherman’s cavalry commander was Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick. Interestingly, Kilpatrick is an ancestor of CNN commentator, Anderson Cooper.   Gen.  Kilpatrick reportedly spent $5,000 in Savannah for matches for his troopers. Kilpatrick, better known as “Kill Cav” for his rashness in battle that got his own men killed, was obnoxious, boastful, and a notorious womanizer. At Savannah, he told his corps, “In after years when travelers passing through South Carolina shall see chimney stacks without houses, and the country desolate, and shall ask who did this? Some Yankee will answer: Kilpatrick’s Cavalry!” His men would soon leave a scorched swath across South Carolina.

The 10th Ohio Cavalry was with the wing of Sherman’s Army that was apparently moving towards Augusta, Georgia. Sherman’s goal was to confuse the Confederates by making them think that his army was moving towards either Augusta, where the Confederacy’s gunpowder mills were located,  or Charleston, South Carolina, when his real objective was Columbia, South Carolina. Kilpatrick’s Cavalry, including the 10th Ohio Cavalry, approached Aiken, South Carolina. Kilpatrick’s objective was to destroy the railroad and government property in Aiken and any unheeded foray into Aiken almost certainly would have also involved destruction of civilian property as well.  Aiken is located in the southwestern part of South Carolina, about 20 miles from Augusta, Georgia. While Aiken now has a population of about 30,000, its population at the time of the Civil War was well less than 2,000. Notable residents of Aiken over the years have included South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond and the Perry brothers, William “Refrigerator” and Micahel Dean, both of whom played in the NFL.

As Kilpatrick’s Cavalry approached Aiken on February 11,  the residents of Aiken realized that their worst fears were coming true and began to flee the  town.  Confederate General Joseph Wheeler had approximately 4,500 cavalry in the vicinity of Aiken. Wheeler proceeded to set a trap for Kilpatrick in the town of Aiken.

Wheeler formed his Confederate cavalry in the shape of a ‘V’, with the bottom of the ‘V’ pointed west towards Augusta. The railroad and Park Avenue ran down the center of the ‘V’. A thin line of skirmishers was deployed between the top tips of the  ‘V.’ On the approach of Kilpatrick’s troops,  the line was to fall back. . It was hoped that Kilpatrick would be rash and would charge after the retreating Confederates into the ‘V’. Wheeler would then collapse the tops of the ‘V’ around Kilpatrick’s troops  and thus surround them.

Although Kilpatrick had been warned that Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry troops were occupying Aiken, the reckless Kilpatrick blindly ignored those warnings and  marched into the town.  Kilpatrick’s troops entered Aiken and proceeded into the awaiting ambush. The Confederate soldiers were hiding in ambush, waiting for the signal to attack.  As the 92d Illinois Mounted Infantry entered Aiken, the ladies of the town waved their handkerchiefs and smilingly invited the Union officers and troops into their homes. While that was not the customary welcome received by Union troops when they triumphantly entered a southern town, they  ignored this telltale warning, further facilitating the Confederate plan.   However, the Confederate plan plan fell apart when an Alabama trooper fired his gun prematurely, thus springing the trap too soon. The Confederate general, realizing that he must act quickly or lose the initiative, ordered all units to attack. The key engagement occurred  in front of the First  Baptist Church. The Union troops were soon surrounded and outnumbered but bravely fought their way out of the ambush and retreated in wild confusion  to the outskirts of town in the midst of wild, hand-to-hand fighting. Gen. Kilpatrick was almost captured himself in the confusion of this battle.

Just outside of town, Kilpatrick’s troops had established a line manned by the 1oth Ohio Cavalry, 9th Ohio Cavalry and the 9th Michigan Cavalry. Accounts of the battle indicate that when the Union troops were pushed out of town and into the second line of cavalry, including the  10th Ohio Cavalry, that the retreating  Union and pursuing  Confederate troops were so close that the second line Union troops dared not fire, noting that the Union and Confederate soldiers were pulling each other off their horses trying to claim prisoners. It was in this phase of the battle that Simon Poland was likely taken prisoner. Notably, Simon’s brother, Alexander Poland, a member of the 9th Ohio Cavalry also participated in this battle.

The Union and Confederate troops skirmished for the rest of the day and into the next morning. Ultimately, Kilpatrick sent out a flag of truce so that he could recover his dead and wounded. Kilpatrick ultimately withdrew and rejoined Sherman on his march to Columbia.

Commanders in their reports often overestimated their opponent’s casualties and downsized their own. Kilpatrick states that Wheeler lost 31 killed, 160 wounded and 60 taken prisoners, for a total of 251 Confederate casualties. Wheeler admitted losing only 50 killed and wounded. Wheeler also claimed that the Confederates attack resulted in 53 killed, 270 wounded and 172 captured, or 495 Union casualties in all. Kilpatrick admitted to losing 25 killed and wounded and less than 20 captured.

Therefore, total Federal casualties were between 45 and 495, while the Confederates lost between 50 and 251. What we do know is that our ancestor, Simon Poland, was captured and taken prisoner during the Battle of Aiken.

By almost any yardstick, the Battle of Aiken was a defeat for the Union troops and Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, their no-good scoundrel commander, whose rash and reckless conduct almost got a whole brigade of his 3rd Cavalry Division captured and destroyed.  Nevertheless, the Battle of Aiken, in the bigger view, was strategically important as it served to distract and divert key parts of the Confederate army and keep them out of the way of the main advance of Sherman’s army. The outcome of the Battle of Aiken was also vital for the citizens of Aiken as it prevented the ransacking and destruction of their town. Each year, the residents of Aiken reenact the Battle of Aiken and have a weekend of festivities to commemorate the battle. I am putting a visit to Aiken on my “bucket list.”

 

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MY DNA TEST RESULTS

I have had a subscription to ancestry.com for some time. It is a very helpful research tool for facilitating your family history research and organizing your results. My daughters and sons-in-law got me a neat birthday present this year. Specifically, they purchased a DNA test kit for me from ancestry.com. As you may have seen on TV, ancestry.com offers DNA testing and genetic analysis to help users discover, preserve and share their family history, including their ethnicity. Ancestry.com creates estimates for your genetic ethnicity by comparing your DNA to the DNA of other people who are native to a region. The Ancestry DNA reference panel contains 3,000 DNA samples from people in 26 global regions. Each panel member’s genealogy is documented so that ancestry.com can be confident that such panel member is representative of people who have lived in that region for hundreds of years.

Ancestry.com compares your DNA to the DNA of the people in the reference panel to determine which regions your DNA is most like. As a result of this comparison, they come up with an ethnicity estimate. In calculating your estimate for each ethnicity region, they run 40 separate analyses. Each of the 40 analyses gives an independent estimate of your ethnicity, and each one is done with randomly selected portions of your DNA. These 40 tests produce genetic ethnicity estimates and likely ranges for the same.

Each person’s DNA is unique to them. If my brothers were tested, their results would probably  look somewhat different. How is that possible? It comes down to the random nature of genetic test results. We each received a random 50% of each of our parents’ DNA. Because inheritance is random, a sibling typically will not inherit the same DNA as you unless he or she is an identical twin.

I received the DNA test kit in the mail. The instructions were very easy to follow. You spit in a little tube several times and  then screw another tube into that tube to release some liquid that will stabilize your sample. You then mail the sample to ancestry.com and await the results.

For the most part, the results of my DNA testing were not surprising. My research had revealed that most of my ancestors on both my fathers’ side (Snyder) and my mother’s side (Wolford) had come from Germany. The DNA testing confirmed that. My previous research had also revealed that one of my mother’s ancestors was a Queen in one of the Scandinavia countries. Yes, I am related to royalty.  The DNA testing was consistent with that research, showing that some of my DNA is most like that of people from Scandinavian countries.  My DNA testing showed that I have 0% DNA like that of Native American Indians, European Jewish people  or people from the Middle East,  Africa, East Europe, Northwest Russia,  or the Pacific Islands.

My results were as follows:

Europe West                    69%

Great Britain                      9%

Iberian Peninsula             8%

Italy/Greece                        7%

Scandinavia                        3%

Ireland                                  2%

Trace Regions                    2%

The Iberian Peninsula is interpreted as being essentially Spain and Portugal. Europe West is interpreted as being Germany, France, Netherlands,  Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg and Belgium. Notably, I have much more “Europe West DNA” than the typical person living in Europe West.

I found the results of my DNA testing very interesting and thought I would share them with you. I guess I can officially celebrate St. Patrick’s Day.  If anyone else in our family has had this DNA genetic testing, I would love to compare our results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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BELLVILLE BLUE JAYS CHEERLEADERS

Janet (Snyder) Hope on left and Pat (Snyder) Hoffman on right

Janet (Snyder) Hope on left and Pat (Snyder) Hoffman on right

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ORA OTIS SNYDER, SR. OBITUARY

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August 27, 2016 · 8:30 pm

58th HENRY ALBERT AND MARTHA ELLEN SNYDER REUNION

Tony and Brittany Stoffer

Tony and Brittany Stoffer

Bruce Snyder, Bill Hope and Bob Robinson

Bruce Snyder, Bill Hope and Bob Robinson

Karen Hope

Karen Hope

Tess Snyder

Tess Snyder

Brittany Stoffer and Linda Snyder

Brittany Stoffer and Linda Snyder

Bruce and Gifta Snyder

Bruce and Gifta Snyder

Gifta Snyder

Gifta Snyder

Paul and Art Snyder

Paul and Art Snyder

The 58th annual Henry Albert and Martha Ellen Snyder reunion was held on Saturday, August 13 at the residence of Bill and Karen Hope outside of Bellville. Despite some rain, the 37 family members in attendance had an enjoyable time with great food and fellowship. Next year’s reunion will be held at Kim and Kyle Beveridge’s and it was decided, to try something different, that we will have a catered dinner. Here is hoping that the Hoffwong clan can join us from Colorado next year! Here are some photos that I took.

Joyce, Jerry and Art Snyder

Joyce, Jerry and Art Snyder

Connie and Bob Pore

Connie and Bob Pore

Lindsay Radkoski, Colter Radkoski, Randy Snyder and Leah Snyder

Lindsay Radkoski, Colter Radkoski, Randy Snyder and Leah Snyder

Paul and Art Snyder

Paul and Art Snyder

Tom Brumenschenkel and Janet Snyder

Tom Brumenschenkel and Janet Snyder

Debbie and Bob Robinson

Debbie and Bob Robinson

Hannah and Paul Snyder

Hannah and Paul Snyder

Adelaide and Lani Snyder

Adelaide and Lani Snyder

Todd Snyder and Bill Hope

Todd Snyder and Bill Hope

Randy and Tess Snyder

Randy and Tess Snyder

 

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MARION LUCAS SNYDER OBITUARY

timthumbTrent Snyder has recently posted some obituaries of older family members on the Snyder Funeral Homes website. Here is the obituary for Marion Lucas Snyder, my grandmother.


Marion was born in Shelby, Ohio on March 10, 1897, the daughter of Thomas Lucas  and Cora Poland Lucas  and later lived in Perry Township in Morrow County.

Mr. and Mrs. Snyder celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary last February.

Marion was a licensed funeral director.  She had worked with her husband, Ora in funeral service in Johnsville, Lexington and Bellville for the past 44 years.

She was a past matron of the Bellville Chapter, Order of Eastern Star; a member of the Bellville Garden Club and the Mansfield Arts Study Club; and had been active in civic affairs in the Bellville community.  Marion was a member of St. Paul’s Lutheran Church in Bellville.

In addition to her husband Ora O. Snyder, she is survived by three daughters Mrs. Betty (William) Ritchie of Colorado Springs, Colorado; Mrs. Patricia (Larry) Hoffman also of Colorado Springs, Colorado and Mrs. Janet (Jim) Hope of Bellville, Ohio; and ten sons Donald L. (Virginia) Snyder of Mansfield, Ohio; David J. (Jean) Snyder of Pueblo, Colorado; Richard (Helen) and Paul (Shontell) Snyder all of Fredericktown, Ohio; Robert (Dorothy) and Arthur (Joyce) Snyder all of Lexington, Ohio; Ora O. “Pete” (Gifta) Snyder, Jr. and James (Pat) Snyder all of Bellville, Ohio; Philip C. (Madelyn) Snyder of Mount Gilead, Ohio; Arden Snyder of Denver, Colorado; and 40 grandchildren.

Funeral services were held in the Snyder Funeral Home in Bellville on Wednesday, August 31, at 11 am. by Rev. Glenn Strohl.  Burial followed in Bellville Cemetery.

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THOMAS W. COVER—GALLATIN VALLEY PIONEER

Thomas Wells Cover

Thomas Wells Cover

Last year on the “In Search of Tom Cover” tour, my dad, brother and I stopped at the library in Virginia City, Montana to see if we could learn any new information about Tom Cover. The librarian was very nice—she located several articles about Tom Cover and provided me with copies of those articles. One of those articles was a manuscript prepared in 2002 by Gary R. Forney, a retired college administrator,  for the  Fourteenth Conference of the Gallatin Valley Historical Society/Pioneer Museum in Bozeman, Montana. I thought you might enjoy reading his article entitled “Thomas W. Cover–Gallatin Valley Pioneer.”


Like many of the early arrivals in the Montana Territory, Tom Cover appears to have been born under a wandering star. Born on March 31, 1831, Cover was only four years old when his family moved from his birthplace in Westminister, Maryland, to Richland, Ohio. Cover was educated at Sloan’s Academy before leaving Ohio, at the age of twenty to explore some of the western territories for nearly two years. Following a brief reunion of a few months with family back in Ohio, Cover left again  in 1854 to search  for adventure and fortune in the wild and untamed American west.

During the next eight years, Cover briefly spent time as a lumberman in Minnesota before catching a case of “gold fever,” which led him to the goldfields of the Colorado territory and, reportedly, into Mexico. In the early spring of 1862, Cover led a group of twenty-six men (including Samuel McLean, another man destined to become prominent in Montana’s history) from Colorado to the gold discovery sites of central Idaho. Quickly disappointed by the lack of opportunity in this area, Cover followed the rumors of new gold strikes across the Bitterroot mountains to a site known as Gold Cree, where he made the acquaintance of men who would change the course of his life–and help in that elusive quest for fortune. Among those Cover met were brothers James and Granville Stuart, who convinced him to join those traveling to the new diggings along Grasshopper Creek (Montana Territory). Once again, Cover was on the move, joining others in a rush south to another boomtown. “The settlers of Bannack in 1862-63, included those who arrived with Woodminister’s train, September 8, 1862, were…..Thomas W. Cover…Barney Hughes…..”)

Although Cover did not find enough gold at Bannack to make his fortune, he soon found a group of men who shared his dream. By the winter of 1862-63, Cover was part of a “company” with William Fairweather, Henry  Edgar, Barney Hughes, George Orr, Michael Sweeney and Harry Rodgers—Cover being the only American citizen of the group. This little band was invited by James Stuart to join a prospecting expedition he was organizing to travel into the Yellowstone region in the early spring of 1863. Without going into the extraordinary details of the group’s adventures, the men (sans Orr) discovered what was to become one of the richest deposits of gold in America on May 26, 1863, along the banks of Alder Creek. Several communities soon appeared along the Alder Gulch and, although Cover maintained his original claim and filed several additional new claims, he quickly recognized the potential for wealth was not restricted to what could be washed from the stream banks.

Cover formed a partnership with Perry (“Bud”) McAdow to establish a sawmill along Granite Creek and was also operating a lumber yard in Virginia City by the summer of 1864. The demand created by the exploding population growth along the Alder Gulch for lumber to build new shops, saloons, homes, sluice boxes, and coffins made Cover a wealthy and prominent businessman of the territory. The well-sharpened instincts of a traveler served Cover very well, and he sold most of his mining claims and commercial interests with the intention of relocating to the Gallatin Valley. One report that may have come from Cover himself, said that he was paid $75,000 for his claims.  During the winter of 1864-65, while Virginia City experienced “Flour Riots,” Cover returned to Ohio to visit his family, purchase grist mill equipment and begin the courtship of Mary Hess.

Tom Cover, with brother Jason, returned to Montana in mid-May of 1865 and. still in partnership with Bud McAdow, soon began building a grist mill near the new settlement of Bozeman. Located on the east side of town and a few blocks north of the principal thoroughfare, the mill was an imposing 3 and 1/2 story building bordered by a grain field of 150 acres that Cover had planted. By the time the mill opened for operation in September, Cover had been elected clerk of Gallatin County in the county’s first election, but he resigned that post by late November in order to accept a new title–husband.

Cover returned to Ohio to wed Mary Hess on December 31, 1865, in Columbus. The ceremony was officiated by Mary’s father (Judge Daniel Hess), and the couple spent their honeymoon traveling to New York City and Washington, D.C. In late March of 1866, the couple—with new equipment for the grist mill–boarded the steamboat Bighorn at St. Louis for the long journey to Fort Benton, then traveled by stagecoach to their home in the growing community of Bozeman. By that autumn, the grist mill was operating at full capacity, and the Covers had established themselves as leading citizens. Mary was cited in the Montana Post as “a cultured, lovable woman, who won the hearts of all who met her, ” and Tom was a charter member of the Gallatin Masonic Lodge founded in October of 1866. The couple also donated funds to help found the first church in Bozeman: “John Bozeman gave twenty-five dollars, the more affluent Tom Cover gave one hundred dollars.” As bright as the future may have seemed, however, a dark cloud was moving over the Gallatin Valley and the life of Tom Cover.

Although some have accused Thomas Francis Meagher (the acting territorial governor) of initiating the so-called Indian War of 1867, it is more accurate to recognize that one of the first links in the chain of events that led to the “war,” and Meagher’s death was forged in the Gallatin Valley. From the earliest arrival of the Anglo-European fur trappers in the land that would become Montana, there had been conflicts between the whites and the Indians. With the Alder Gulch discovery, and the subsequent opening of the Bozeman Trail, the number and intensity of these conflicts had gradually increased as thousands of prospectors and settlers swarmed into the territory. Governor Sidney Edgerton unsuccessfully attempted to form a militia in the spring of 1865 following the incident where ten white men had been killed by Blackfoot warriors near Fort Benton, and acting Governor Meagher had been frequently petitioned by citizens and civic officials , who cited acts of Indian violence and urgently requested protection. From its first issue, the Montana Post had featured a column entitled “Indian Movement” which called, in no uncertain terms for decisive action in esolving the hostilities.

During 1865 and 1866, the military posts of Fort Reno, Fort Kearny and Fort C.F. Smith were established along the Bozeman Trail to help provide protection for the emigrant trains, but they could do little to offer security to those beyond their very limited reach, including their own troops. On December 21, 1866, near Fort Kearney, eighty men under the leadership of impulsive Captain William Fetterman, earned the distinction of being the first significant command of regular army troops to be annihilated in Montana by an overwhelming force of combined Indian tribes.

At a public meeting in Bozeman on March 18, the citizens decided to erect a stockade at the Cover/McAdoo mill for protection from the perceived Indian threat.  The assembly also passed a resolution calling for Acting Governor Meagher to provide arms and ammunition for the local residents and appointed Thomas Cover as a delegate to deliver the resolution.  John Bozeman added his significant influence to the cause in a letter to Meagher dated March 25, 1867, in which he declared: “We have reliable reports here that we are in imminent danger of hostile Indians and if there is not something done  to protect this valley soon, there will be but few men, and no families, left in the Gallatin Valley.”

In early April, despite all the concerns of possible Indian attacks—or perhaps sensing opportunity—Tom Cover determined to visit the military forts along the Bozeman Trail in an effort to secure contracts to provision those posts. Cover was able to enlist John Bozeman as his guide for the trip, although Bozeman reportedly had grave misgivings regarding the likelihood that  he would return safely. The pair departed early on the morning of April 17 and spent that night at a cow  camp on the ranch of Nelson Story (near present-day Livingston) before proceeding on their journey. In the early morning of April 19, Cover rode back into camp—wounded in his left shoulder and without Bozeman. The story, and intrigue, of Bozeman’s death has been recounted by several authors  and will not be further narrated in this article. On April 22, Cover sent to Acting Governor Meagher a report on the death of Bozeman at the hands of a party of five Blackfeet Indians, concluding that” “From what I can glean in the way of information, I am satisfied that there is a large party of Blackfeet on the Yellowstone, whose sole object is plunder and scalps.” The news of Bozeman’s murder created new waves of panic among the residents of the Gallatin Valley, and fear combined with an urge to revenge the death of a popular young man spread throughout the territory.

In early June, Cover, accompanied by a guard of forty men from the newly established militia, was sufficiently recovered from his wound to lead a train of ten wagons of supplies to Fort Smith. Throughout the summer months, Cover was active in provisioning the territory militia, and in October he would lead  thirty-six wagons to Fort Smith. Although there were no military engagements with the Indians, and the militia was dismissed in early October, the conflict between whites and Indians was far from resolved. Frustrated by a continuing series of raids, and unwilling to engage in an all-out war, General-in Chief Ulysses S. Grant directed in March of 1868 that all the military posts along the Bozeman Trail be closed.

Once again, C0ver’s intuitive sense of timing would serve him well. By the late autumn of 1868, Cover had become intrigued with the idea of silk production in southern California. It is certainly reasonable to conclude that this new interest may have been stimulated by a combination of factors, including competition from new grist mills, the closing of the Bozeman Trail and perhaps whispers of doubt regarding his role in the death of John Bozeman. Whatever his interest, Cover sold his interest in the mill to William McAdow (Perry’s brother) and moved to southern California by the spring of 1869 with Mary.

Although the plan to raise silkworms never reached fruition, Cover did not lose his “Midas Touch” with his move to California. Purchasing large tracts of land which soon became prosperous orchards and the town site for Riverside, Cover continued to add to his material wealth.. The “fever” which had been dormant for several years flared again, however, in 1879. Cover became obsessed with the story of the Peg-Leg Mine, which according to popular lore, was located in the desert south of Riverside in the area known as the Salton Sea. On September 16, 1884, Cover, accompanied by Wilson Russell, left Riverside for his fifth expedition in search of the legendary treasure. The men separated on the morning of September 22, agreeing to meet later that day at a known point but it was the last anyone would see of Tom Cover. Despite the exhaustive efforts of Russell and several search parties, the body of Tom Cover was never found. Stories that a skeleton was found wearing Cover’s Masonic ring , and that he was murdered by relatives of a victim of vigilante activity, in which Cover had reportedly played a role, are alluring but not factual.

Since 1884,  Riverside, California has developed into a large city within the urban web of Los Angeles and the idea of open spaces, beautiful orchards and silk worm farms are as distant and unknown to its residents as the name of the man who first settled there. Except for the few weeks each summer when tourists crowd Virginia City and make their motorized pilgrimage to Boot Hill, Cover Street is a quiet residential byway that Tom Cover would likely recognize even today. Cover’s mill was razed in 1812 to make way for the Chicag0-Milwaukee railroad line into Bozeman and its mill s stones were moved—-and remain—in what today is the southeast corner of Beall Park.

In the quiet of a summer’s evening, when the laughter of children playing on the playground at Beall Park has turned to slumber, and the public pavilion is empty, if one listens very carefully while sitting beneath those beautiful trees, the breezes moving about those mill stones will whisper stories from a long time ago. A time when thousands of new emigrants, flushed with dreams of fortune, surged through a new community, when Indians were struggling to protect the way of life known to them and their ancestors, when men and women risked their lives for a fresh beginning…….. the time of Tom Cover’s mill.

 

 

 

 

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